sew.ciety.net

Studying Theatrical Costume and other adventures in London - sewing, fabrics and events.

Tag: petersham

Homework 32: Cockades – red, white and blue

Red, white and blue

Red, white and blue

I was pretty confident that I would be able to come up with some good decoration after my cockade experiment. It seemed they are mostly just variations of pleating.

I did a quick bit of research to find out if red, white and blue did mean anything on a cockade in the 18th century.  It turns out that the ‘tricolour cockade of France’ was created in 1789 by the Paris militia in response to Camille Desmoulins asking his followers to wear green cockades. The Paris militia’s cockades had blue in the centre and red on the outside.

It doesn’t look like anyone has used red in the centre and blue on the outside apart from the (British) Royal Air Force which of course is much more recent, but probably why it felt more natural for me to set the colours in that order – I am after all a forces brat!

First I wanted to see roughly how big the cockades should be, so I made a quick shape in petersham to place on the shoe.

Getting an idea for the sizing of the cockade

Getting an idea for the sizing of the cockade - don't worry they looked a lot better than this in the end!

Base material

I knew I wanted at least 2 or 3 tiers, and as all my petershame was 25mm wide at most, I knew I would have to use a base to sew on of some kind. I found some white felt in my scrap box and thought it would be perfect to cut in to circles.

I folded the circles in to quarters so I could find the centre, and then I used a handy large transparent button to make an inner guideline for the 2nd tier.

Tracing round a glass to make felt circles

Tracing round a glass to make felt circles

Using a button to make an inner guideline

Using a large button to make an inner guideline

Blue (box pleat) tier

The blue petersham I had ordered was quite thick, so I didn’t want to ruffle it too much. Instead I decided to make box pleats.

First I used chalk to mark 10mm spacings along the petersham as I wanted to make sure they looked regular.

Marking 10mm spacings

Marking 10mm spacings

Box pleating the petersham

Box pleating the petersham

Next, I worked out I would need 8 pleats to get a circle with a large enough circumference.

Box pleats pinned on to the felt circles. Checking the size on the shoe.

Box pleats pinned on to the felt circles. Checking the size on the shoe.

White (knife pleat) tier

For the next tier I wanted to use a different pleat. One where the folds would overlap, but I wasn’t sure  how wide the pleats should be and how much they should overlap, so I did another test. Again, I started by marking out spacings, but this time 5mm apart using soluble marker.

Test pleats. The pleats at the beginning are tighter than at the end.

Test pleats. The pleats at the beginning are tighter than at the end.

I decided I liked the wider pleats where more ribbon was used because you would have folds at the outer edges as well as in the centre.  If you didn’t use enough, the outer edge would look taught.

I also tried to end the circle so the join would be under a pleat and not show, and then stitched the edges together.

Sewing the edges together to complete the circle

Sewing the edges together to complete the circle

Red (ruffle) tier

The centre tier was going to have to be quite small, so I just did a straight stitch 1/4 in from the edge of the red grossgrain and then gathered it in to a circle tying it taught and sewing the two edges together.

Back of the red ruffled tier

Back of the red ruffled tier

Constructing the cockade

This was pretty easy starting with the blue tier, I just pinned it on to the felt and stab stitched in place. Then placed the white layer using the guide I had drawn on to the felt earlier. On the red tier I tried to catch the red ruffles where they touched the felt, so that it would not disturb the gathers.

Sewing on the blue tier

Sewing on the blue tier

Sewing on the blue tier - back

Sewing on the blue tier - back

The finished cockades

A pair of red, white and blue cockade's - front

A pair of red, white and blue cockades - front

Back of the cockades

Back of the cockades

Would you buy one or would you just make your own? Please let me know :)

Attaching the cockades to the shoes

My shoes were now thoroughly dry after dying and had come out quiet well, now it was time to decorate them with the cockades.

I used very strong button hole thread and tried to use the existing holes which were made by the wires holding on the bows I had prized off previously. The uppers of the shoes were very hard to get the needle through, so I had to use my metal thimble to push and the rubber one to help me pull out.

Sewing on the top of the cockade to the shoe

Sewing on the top of the cockade to the shoe

You can see where the previous decoration is being covered up

Sewing through the shoe to the felt


Trying to use existing holes to get the needle through

Trying to use existing holes to get the needle through

Homework 29: Setting in the sleeve and gathering the overskirt

Today I set the calico sleeve in the bodice shoulder. This toile was based on the basic sleeve block we had cut in January. I wanted to see how it fit and what adjustments I would need to make.

Setting the sleeve

To make the period shape, there needs to be two pleats on the back of the join. I tried very hard to make the pleatsline up with the seams joining the bodice pieces.

Calico toile sleeve set into the bodice with two pleats.

Calico toile sleeve set into the bodice with two pleats.

Unlike most sleeves today which are usually straight tubes or funnels, 18th century sleeves that went below the elbow had tucks or seams to bend the sleeve in to a gentle L shape. Often they would also have large cuffs.

Sleeve pined to make a bend at the elbow and folded back to make a cuff

Sleeve pined to make a bend at the elbow and folded back to make a cuff

I played around to see if I could get the ‘look’ as the toile had a fair amount of fabric to play with. If I had cut the sleeve differently, or used a separate piece of material, I could have made the cuff bigger, but I was planning to have slightly gathered lawn cuffs showing from the sleeve too.

Gathering the overskirt

Previously I had agreed with Claire that I would gather rather than pleat the overkirt. At this point I was  happy to do it this way as it was quite quick, and as the fabric is fairly light, it ruffled up well. As the left and right vertical edges were on the selvege edge, I was able to turn over 15mm and then 15cm to make a self facing and tacked them in place before gathering the waistband.

Front edges turned in to make facing

Front edges turned in to make facing and tacked in place

The overskirt was starting to fray heavily, so I zig-zag stitched the bottom to try and keep it under control until I could get around to hemming it by hand.

Zig-zag stitching the edge to stop the hem from fraying

Zig-zag stitching the edge to stop the hem from fraying

As with the under petticoat, I gathered in sections to help avoid the threads breaking and then I machine stitched on to a petersham waistband  which was the waist measurement plus 70mm extra on each side, so that the overskirt could be fitted.  In the picture below you can see how much the fabric is fraying.

Gathers sewn on to petersham waistband

Gathers sewn on to petersham waistband

Homework 29: Quilted petticoat – pleating on to waistband

Now the bottom of the quilted petticoat is finished, I have to concentrate on the top. First thing to do is to get rid of any excess wadding above the quilting line. The quilting on the petticoat only touches the waistband at the front, around the side and the back, the quilting doesn’t start until it drops off the roll of the bumpad.

Once all the excess has been removed, I double checked the waistline markings and the laid the quilt out flat on the table. It was folded in half with the centre front and centre back on the crease. After that, I carefully added seam allowance and marked parallel to waistline. Next thing to do was carefully cut.

Excess seam allowance cut parallel to waistline

Excess seam allowance cut parallel to waistline - you can see the hump for the bumpads.

Pleating on to waistband

It would  have been easier to gather, especially as the waist would not bee seen much, but I had read a lot about petticoats of the period would have most likely been pleated, so I wanted to do that. I also thought it would look better with the pocket slits.

Trying to remember the pleating tips Claire had told us earlier in the year, I ended up pleating  and repleating 10 or more times as I didn’t want them too big or too small. I also had a tendency to leave the petticoat too flat at the front so that it looked like a big upside down U.

Pleating on to waistband, but with too much fabric at the back, so the front looks too flat.

Pleating on to waistband, but with too much fabric at the back, so the front looks too flat.

I realised if I had more fabric at the front, the fabric would fall in more of the period shape.

Pleats too wide

Pleats too wide

I wanted the pleats to look even, but I also wanted the quilted ovals to match and line up in places and this drew me to make larger or smaller pleats than what was required.

Back of the petticoat - showing the oval meeting up on the pleat folds

Back of the petticoat - showing the oval meeting up on the pleat folds

Once I was happy with it, I tacked it on to the waistband ready for fitting.

Homework 29: Cockade experiment

Petersham from Ribbons2U on ebay

Petersham from Ribbons2U on ebay

One of the requirements for our costume is that it has red, white and blue. So far I am doing quite well with this as my corset is red and white, and my top fabrics is blue and white. However, ever since seeing rosettes and cockades I really wanted to use them to decorate my costume.

I was even more inspired when I saw these sites:

So I thought I would start to make one myself.  Using petersham or grossgrain seemed to be good to use and so I ordered a 25mm  mixed colour selection and 5 meters of red, white and blue from Ribbons2U on ebay (good service, arrived quickly).

Looking at the sites above, especially the American Duchess, I thought about using the pin method, but in the end I decided to just start pleating in a straight line, stab stitching through in a similar colour thread. I made sure there was enough fabric in the fold so that I would be able to curve around the centre when I had made enough pleats.

First attempt at making an outer tier of a cockade

First attempt at making an outer tier of a cockade - front

Close up of the pleats on the first tier of cockade

Close up of the pleats on the first tier of cockade

Back of tier showing the stitching

Back of tier showing the stitching

As it was my first attempt, I thought I would use a colour I was less likely to use, but the tier didn’t turn out too bad.  I didn’t measure the the intervals for the pleats, I think if I did it would make it look more regular. I would have to add another one or 2 tiers and maybe a button in the centre. Quite happy as a first effort.

Class 3: Measuring and samples continued, plus bum pads

In the morning we remeasured, in different groups from last week, so that we could see the variation in peoples different techniques and workout if we were being too generous or not.

Afterwards we continued with samples:

Bias binding

Bias binding are strips of fabric cut at 45 degree angle (on the bias) to the grain of the fabric. You can purchase it in many colours and fabrics and it can come in flat, single or double folded strips.

Making your own bias strips

  1. Cut fabric straight on the grain and fold diagonally to find the true bias.
  2. Using the fold as a guide, mark parallel lines the desired width apart. Make sure you allow for seam allowance, or if making folded bias binding, allow for the amount you wish to turn over.
  3. If you wish to fold the bias, it is easier if you use a bias tape maker as a guide.

Joining individual strips

  1. Take two strips and mark a 6 mm seam line on each.
  2. Place strips right sides together and match the seam lines (not the edges)
  3. Pin, stitch and press open.
Joining individual bias strips

Joining individual bias strips

To make continuous strips

  1. Take the marked fabric, join the ends right sides together of set by one strip on each side. The marked line should meet the next and coil around so there is one continuous line (not lots of individual rings).
  2. Stitch a 6mm seam and press open.
  3. Cut along the marked line until you have one long strip.

Piping

Piping can be used to finish edges decoratively, but are often used on hems that need to be a little more robust, or on seams where a bit more structure is required.

To make your own piping

  1. Cut strips as you would for bias binding. The width measured our must take in to account the seam allowance and the width of the filling/cord used.
  2. Wrap the strips around the cord and match the raw edges.
  3. If you do not have a piping foot you can use a zipper foot to sew close to the encased cord edge. Be careful not to sew on the filler.
Making piping

Piping in the making

Piped seam

A piped seam

Piped hem

The layers of a double folded piped hem

Fastenings

Poppers/press studs

  1. Once you have decided where the popper should go, make a small back stitch to secure the thread.
  2. If the popper is on facing, make another stitch that  catches through the outer layer so that the popper is held in place.
  3. Work around sewing from each hole to the outside of the popper with 4 or 5 stitches for each hole.
  4. Once you have sewn on one side, use a pin through the centre hole to help you correctly place the other side of the popper.
  5. Sew on the other side of the popper in the same way as the first.
  6. When sewing more than one popper, alternate male/female sides. This will stop them all popping open if accidentally pulled.

Hook and eye (video instructions)

On both the hock and the eye, you should use 5 or 6 stitches to go round each ring. On the hook, you should also ensure the top of the hook is secured by a few stitches.

The hook is normally attached to the top layer of fabric with the hook facing towards the body.

Thread chain (to be used instead of eye with hook)

  1. Secure thread at the top.
  2. Using double thread, use basic crochet technique to create the desired length of your chain (some further instructions here).
  3. Secure at bottom of loop
Hook and eye, and hook and loop fastening

Hook and eye, and hook and thread chain fastening

Mini bum pad sample

  1. Cut fabric on the bias, this will give a smoother curve.
  2. Double stitch as the pad should be well stuffed and so the seams will be under strain.
  3. Lay fastening strips in seams on the inside when sewing.
  4. Do not sew to a point in sharp corners – make one ‘blunt’ stitch across. This will make it easier when turning out.
  5. When turning out and stuffing use a knitting needle to push in to the corners.

Double stitch around edge, leaving an opening big enough so you can turn though and add stuffing.

Snip in to the seams, so that when you turn though the edge will be smooth.

Mini bumpad stuffed and ready to go.

Petersham waistband sample

Hems and seams should be finished before the waistband is applied. This type of waistband is commonly used on gathered or pleated skirts or petticoats and is very durable.

Generally, you would try and match the colour of the Petersham to the garment, but in my sample it is black as I had run out of white. The Petersham goes on the inside of the waistband and the cotton tape on the outside. The Petersham could be covered with velvet ribbon for a more luxurious finish. Petersham tape is usually made out of polyester and is also known as grosgrain tape.

The tapes should be longer than the desired length of the gathers or pleats, so the ends can be turned in for a neater finish. On a real garment, the tapes would normally overlap at the fastening, so that a hook or button could be placed. The bottom of the Petersham is where the waistline should sit.

Pinning to the drop to the Petersham.

Pin to the gathers on to the Petersham, making sure the centre and the ends are in the correct place. The Petersham should be on the wrong side of the fabric.

Sewing Petersham on to the gathers.

Sewing Petersham on to the gathers.

Petersham sewn on to the gathers

Petersham sewn on to the gathers. You can see the stitch line is in between the two rows of gathering stitch.

Top of cotton tape sewn on to Petersham tape

Top of cotton tape sewn on to Petersham tape. When you do this, remember to turn in the edges of the tapes to get a neater finish.

Cut off excess fabric from the gathers

Cut off excess fabric from the gathers

Waistband sample ready for the cotton tape to be sewn down.

Waistband sample ready for the cotton tape to be sewn down.

Stitch in the ditch on the petersham side to catch the cotton tape.

Stitch in the ditch on the petersham side to catch the cotton tape.

Finished petersham waistband sample

Finished petersham waistband sample

Planning a petticoat

Claire explained the formula to create a layplan and draft petticoat pattern. Read my write up planning an 18th Century petticoat pattern.

Hand outs:

  • Information on bum pads
  • Page 28 from ‘Period Costume for Stage and Screen‘ : Bum pads
  • Seam neatening/Flat fell seam/French seam/hems/cutting&joining bias binding/piping/press studs
  • Tools, sewing machine and parts.

Homework:

  • Make waistband sample and full size bum pads (x 2 pads) using pattern H from ‘Period Costume for Stage and Screen’.
  • Calculate measurements/dimensions for petticoat body and frill using formula.
  • Draw out layplan.

© 2018 sew.ciety.net

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑